艺术与建筑索引典(英语:Art & Architecture Thesaurus,AAT)是一个用来描述关于艺术、建筑和物质文化项目的受控词表。AAT收录各种通用术语,如“大教堂”,但不收录专有名词,如“圣母大教堂”。AAT供博物馆、艺术图书馆、档案馆以及艺术和艺术史研究人员等使用。AAT符合ISO 2788英语ISO 2788ISO 25964英语ISO 25964和ANSI / NISO Z39.19标准。

AAT是一个约44000个概念的结构化词汇表,包括131,000个术语、描述、书目引用,以及与美术、建筑、装饰艺术、档案材料和物质文化有关的其他信息。

历史

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The AAT project began in the late 1970s in response to the gradual automation of records by art libraries, art journal indexing services, and catalogers of museum objects and visual resources. Automation required consistency in cataloging as well as more efficient retrieval of information; a controlled vocabulary was a solution to both these problems. The project was conceived by library directors and architectural experts Toni Petersen, Dora Crouch, and Pat Molholt and was originally headquartered part-time at RPI in Troy, NY, then at Bennington College in Bennington, VT and later moved to Williamstown, Massachusetts, with the J. Paul Getty Trust providing technical advice and funding. In 1983 the Getty Trust took over editorial responsibility. The AAT offices relocated to the Getty's Los Angeles headquarters in order to better coordinate with two other similar Getty projects, the Union List of Artist Names (ULAN) and Getty Thesaurus of Geographic Names (TGN) soon after its publication.

The AAT was published in 1990 and 1994 in both print and electronic form. By 1997, the size and frequency of updates made hard-copy publication unfeasible and the decision was made to publish via a searchable online Web interface and in data files available for licensing. The online Web interface is freely-accessible from any computer connected to the Internet. Final editorial control of the AAT is maintained by the Getty Vocabulary Program, part of the Getty Research Institute.

Since 2008, Taiwan e-Learning and Digital Archives Program (TELDAP) collaborated with Getty Research Institute (GRI) in developing the Chinese-language Art & Architecture Thesaurus (AAT-Taiwan). The initial goal of this project is to provide multilingual search and corresponding images in integrate digital archives systems of Taiwan, and broaden the inclusion of terms related to Asian art, architecture and material culture in AAT.

The AAT can be used in several ways:

AAT is available as Linked Open Data at vocab.getty.edu since February 2014 and is updated bi-weekly.

项目

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The initial core set of terms was derived from authority lists and the literature of art and architectural history; this core set was reviewed, approved and added to by an advisory team made up scholars from all relevant disciplines, including art and architectural historians, architects, librarians, visual resource curators, archivists, museum personnel, and specialists in thesaurus construction. Its hierarchy was inspired by the Medical Subject Headings. All eras from antiquity to the present are covered, and it is not limited geographically.

As of January 2007, the AAT contained approximately 131,000 terms. While the thesaurus contains many variations on a term, such as singular and plural forms, spelling variants, various forms of speech, and synonyms, one is always flagged as the preferred term. Terms are updated biweekly and regular users are encouraged to propose new terms.

In 2015 AAT contains 354,000 terms. They are available in 4 major languages (English, Dutch, Spanish and Chinese), and some terms in various native languages.

设计

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The AAT is a faceted classification system as well as a hierarchical one. There are seven facets:

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